Consent will be the key issue in Roethlisberger case

Curiously missing from the public statement given Thursday by Steelers quarterback Ben Roethlisberger was a denial of any contact or activity with the woman claiming in civil court that he sexually assaulted her. 

And we’ve discerned from reading between the lines of the statement and conferring with sources that the words were carefully crafted to focus on whether Roethlisberger “forced [himself]” on Andrea McNulty.

So he’s denying “sexual assault,” and he won’t be addressing in the media whether he had consensual relations with McNulty.  But, if/when required to answer questions truthfully within the confines of the legal proceedings, it appears that he will admit to some type of interaction with McNulty.

Indeed, he might have no choice.  If Harrah’s preserved surveillance images of McNulty entering and exiting the room, it could end up being clear that they were together behind closed doors for some finite period of time on the evening in question.

And so the ultimate issue will be whether McNulty consented to whatever it is that Roethlisberger eventually will admit to doing with her.  Given a reduced legal standard that allows her to prevail merely by proving that her version is more likely true than his, Roethlisberger’s vow to fight necessarily will entail very, very high stakes.

Indeed, even without any current plans to prosecute him criminally, Roethlisberger could in theory have a Nathan Jessup-style meltdown at some point while testifying.  

Finally, for those of you who haven’t seen the video of the statement, our friends at NBC have forwarded it to us.

79 responses to “Consent will be the key issue in Roethlisberger case

  1. To all you Squeelers fans, the D-Players on the Ravens, Browns, and Bengals, will be heard screaming “RAPIST” on every play this year. LOVE IT.

  2. Harrah’s and their employees will be the key issue in this case. He said/she said will not work in favor of this lunatic and against Ben. However, if she did tell her employer (whether it was made up or not) and they did nothing about it, she will win against them. Harrah’s would be wise to cough up a settlement, not Ben.

  3. Florio, you are a total clown and a total moron. Congratulations.
    As for the Baltimore Browns Fan of Killer Ray, watch us beat your sorry butts again on our way to number 7!
    Time to rename it the Rooney Trophy!

  4. Ok, anyone who thinks he actually DIDN’T sleep with her, raise your hand…I never knew that was in question at this point. Of course consent is going to be the key! Thanks Florio, for stating the obvious for the 19th time! (Note to East Bay Ray-I don’t literally mean 19 times, no need to post on her about my inaccurate statement, that was what I like to call an exaggeration)
    Ben definitely slept with her and she’s not exactly attractive.

  5. Come on guys, this is easy to figure out:
    Big Ben is a star. She saw him, and he hit on her. She loved it, and what happened happened. Then, he moved on. She didn’t. This is her way to get him back.
    If she was raped, why didn’t she go to the cops that night.

  6. They can scream all they want. Maybe they can actually try to win a game against the best team in the AFC North.

  7. and the Steelers will be screaming “Hey Ray you going to stab anyone else?” PFT is trying soooo hard to find a bad angle even when the chcik looks shady. the chick wants $$ and why should he have to talk about who he banged?
    even the cops and harrahs doubt her version of the story. btw – 6 super bowls!!!!!!! and 2 in the past 4 years. Ravens fans are soooo bitter.

  8. Gettin’ an ugly girl in the furlisburger: BAD
    Having the whole world know about it: WORSE
    Having the whole world suspect that you actually had to FORCE yourself onto the beast, and then she sues you for it: WORST/GAME OVER.

  9. If a crime was committed the victim needs to go to the police first, not file a civil suit. In my book that’s very telling.
    Going to the police indicates the person is looking for justice. Filing suit shows their primary concern is a payday.

  10. If this isn’t a story, why does ESPN run Big Ben’s denial? They are a joke.

  11. @Ravens Fan – I’m glad that a potential rape has you excited about your cheering possibilities.

  12. Consent is the key issue in a rape case? Thank you for that brilliant piece of journalism.

  13. okay so here is a question can somebody find out when Harrahs recycles their security tapes and then compare that too when she filed the civil suit
    working there she would know the schedule
    she might have waited a little till they were gone, taped over etc… and then filed
    and if she wanted to prove her case wouldn’t her or her lawyer go after the tapes?

  14. Raven Fag –
    The only one yelling rapist on the football field will be Flake-O when he gets pounded by our defense.

  15. So now we have Ben compared to Vick, Clinton, and a FICTIONAL movie character? What’s next? Charles Manson and Ted Bundy?
    One can hope Mr. Florio and the national network that this site has partnered with will give the same attention and treatment to Mr. Roethlisberger if/when he’s found innocent.
    But somehow I doubt it.

  16. RavensFan: You love it because none of those teams can beat the Steelers, no matter what they scream. What those teams should be screaming is “UNCLE”

  17. all of a sudden the Steeler fans come out of hiding. where were you all the last 3 days? aside from what is going on, he sure does sound and look like a complete tool behind the podium.

  18. @RavensFag/PurpleBrownieFan…GrayRay is a MURDERER, yet you worship him…so don’t let those 3 ass whuppins last season cloud your judgement.

  19. She claims they won’t give her the tapes. She also claims that Harrah’s employees got keys to her place and stole her computer WHILE she continues to work at this casino to this day.
    So she gets raped there, it gets covered up there by her fellow employers and yet she continues to work there?
    And pigs fly out of my ### too.

  20. Well I for one wouldn’t admit that I had sex with a woman who sounds like possible nutcase. As he said, he will fight the case in the court rather than the media as you would have liked him to.

  21. @BeddarCheddar…allow me to respectfully disagree, but YOU def. sound like a total tool behind your keyboard.

  22. This is probably the 10th “duh” story on the Ben Civil case by PFT. Keep it up, I never want to have to think when I’m reading an article.

  23. He looks like a rapist.
    I’m not saying that makes him a rapist. I’m just saying he looks like he probably rapes people.

  24. “all of a sudden the Steeler fans come out of hiding. where were you all the last 3 days?”- Cheddar is beddar
    And the winner for the dumbest statement made on this site goes to you. Congratulations. We’ve been here dude, where have you been? Do your homework before you come on here and post something so meaningless.

  25. Dear Hypocritical Stiller fans….
    So amusing is the fact that karma has reared her ugly head (she better be careful around Ben). All of you (and you know who you are) that call Ray a murderer are now defending your boy and crying about everyone jumping on Ben. It sucks having to defend your own against nasty allegations. Before you whiners say that I am…I am in no means comparing 2 men losing their lives to an alleged rape (although to a woman there is probably not much difference).
    It is fun to watch all of the black and gold scrambling to defend Jen .
    Steelerinravens…managed to get a Ray stabbing someone in…..nice. No Raven fan is bitter over you “winning” one SB in the past few years (05 was a gimme and you know it). It took you 25 plus years to get another one….
    Please..get back to the Stiller pissing and moaning….

  26. I really see no need for people to air this out before the facts come. If you had read the lawsuit (how many of you actually have?) there is a ton of information in there that can be proven or disproven. She allegedly told several employees, health care workers, etc about the incident over the few months after it happened. It would be far beyond reason to think all of them would coordinate to continue a coverup and eventually perjure themselves.
    As far as her not filing criminal charges, I am sure Florio can give better color on this, but I think it is nearly impossible to get a conviction on rape charges after the physical evidence is gone. It would essentially be a fool’s errand at this point for her to pursue it criminally.

  27. pittpen says:
    July 23, 2009 4:48 PM
    They can scream all they want. Maybe they can actually try to win a game against the best team in the AFC North.
    Hahahaha, wow, so the Steelers are better than the Browns, LMFAO, the Bengals, LMFAO, and the Ravens. Did you come up with that all by yourself.
    I think it is telling that you arent arguing that Pissburgh is the best team in football. If my team was the defending SB champs, I wouldnt be touting them as the best team in their division, hahahahaha, what a tool!

  28. I love how you decide whether he is innocent or guilty based on what team you cheer for.

  29. the only thing Ben raped was the Ravens defense 3 times last year.

  30. Cheddar is Beddar: You know better than that. Steeler fans never hide. We come to your stadium every time the Steelers play your favorite team. From your name I’m guessing Pack fan? I was there last time Steelers played at Lambeau. I’ll be there when the Pack comes to Heinz Field. I love to see the Steelers beat the Pack!

  31. Did Ben just get out of bed prior to making his statement? And did he happen to sleep in that “suit?” You would have thought his lawyer would have had him come in dressed a little better. Perhaps they were going with the “distraught and bothered” angle.

  32. Consent being key, no shit genius. I need you to tell me that? You are usually pretty close to being on the money but this Captain Obvious post is garbage.

  33. Read the 36 page civil suit. The cover up involved in this case is well documented and will be easy to prove once this gets to court. It is the cover up that gives this case a lot of legitimacy, because without it, it is just a he said, she said case. I have heard it said it could take a year or two for this to get to trial, so this will not be resolved soon if a settlement doesn’t occur, then expect Big Ben to look quite unfavorably when the details come out in a trial. Time between the filing of this lawsuit and it going to trial is his biggest defense, he can just say he didn’t do it and not be challenged, when he gets to court, he’ll face justice and the other side will not be restricted.

  34. Sixburgh…I do not recall any of the 3 “wins” being ass whoopings!! All 3 were close and one was givin to you by a Ref!! Unlike the 2 ABSOLUTE ass whoopins you received in 2006 at the hands of the Ravens!!

  35. The Jimmy says: July 23, 2009 4:52 PM
    If a crime was committed the victim needs to go to the police first, not file a civil suit.
    The majority of rape victims, 60%, do not go to the police. Maybe you could get into their heads to find out why. But, when a girl is raped and doesn’t tell the police, she becomes, unfortunately, part of the majority.

  36. Florio your coverage of this is getting over-the-top. I agree ESPN’s coverage has been bad, but yours is becoming equally bad but in the opposite direction.

  37. “chughouse says:
    July 23, 2009 6:15 PM
    Florio your coverage of this is getting over-the-top. I agree ESPN’s coverage has been bad, but yours is becoming equally bad but in the opposite direction.”
    I agree. I would rather have 3 posts per day, all dealing with the contract status and details of 6th and 7th rounders from Ball State and Northwest North Dakota Christian University.

  38. Last i checked innocence is something we can all presume we retain until proven otherwise – if not most of you jack ass poster board athletes would all be in jail and have your asses handed to you daily.

  39. I live near Pittsburgh and I can’t to hear What Dutchie Wydo from wmbs590 says on his radio show sat about this slut. You can listen online to a replay of his show at
    Hard to believe a woman can get away with something like this.

  40. I’still can not figure out why he did her innocent or not?
    Perhaps he was playing the ponies in the sports book all night and got confused when he saw her…
    Or perhaps he did not see all of the marks on her body from guys touching her with a 10 foot pole?

  41. Ravenmaniac says:July 23, 2009 6:05 PM
    Sixburgh…I do not recall any of the 3 “wins” being ass whoopings!! All 3 were close and one was givin to you by a Ref!! Unlike the 2 ABSOLUTE ass whoopins you received in 2006 at the hands of the Ravens!!
    You blew the Steelers out in both fames in 2006 and still did not win the Super Bowl; you lost three close games last year and the Steelers won a Super Bowl. What’s your point? Yeah, the Steelers got beat down, but what did it get you? A Peyton Manning whipping and promises ot win next season. Well you did not. Best of luck this year without Rex Ryan.

  42. I don’t think we can call what Florio is doing journalism at this point.
    I’ll say what I said last night.
    Sensationalist bullshit.
    Of course the story needs to be reported and shame on ESPN for waiting, but Florio clearly has an agenda here.

  43. Her attorney isn’t a slouch. Being a public prosecutor for nine plus years and never lost a case? He’s practiced law for 30+ years in total. McNulty must have some pretty damning evidence or he wouldn’t have taken it.

  44. rf is right. all ben will hear on the road all year while calling signals or audibles is “RAPE!”.
    maybe even at the pro bowl.
    oh, the comedic possibilities…
    and fans of teams playing the ravens can show up to games with a fake knife in their back!
    cowboys opponents’ fans can show up with soap on a rope!
    lions opponents fans can bring bags to put over the heads of lions’ fans…

  45. “I love how you decide whether he is innocent or guilty based on what team you cheer for. ”
    I’m a gigantic Steelers fan, and this is clearly the only intelligent comment in here.
    Problem is, Zeakman, while we both enjoy the sheer stupidity behind trying this case on Florio’s web site based on which team we cheer for, that’s exactly how this will always play out.
    I mentioned this earlier, but the same thing happened to Jerome Bettis a while ago, and that went away. However, there was no PFT at that point.
    Whether that’s a good thing depends on which team you root for, I suppose. Just as much Steelers fans saying it’s nothing, fans of the Steelers rivals say he committed a capital crime.

  46. I thought it had been reported elsewhere that he said it was consensual.
    Probably afterward she realized that uh-oh, as a hotel employee, she shouldn’t have slept with a guest. So before her bosses found out what she did, she decided to say she was raped. THAT’s probably what she got ridiculed and laughed at about.

    Check out the how to tell if someone is lying video. Ben looks awfully suspiciopus to me. Very nervous for a leader on the football field who would lead his teammates to fight for victory and call out plays with boldness. repent America your idolatry, these guys are all thieves , sinners and crooks, no matter the success.

  48. David,
    How would you look the first time you stood in
    front of cameras to deny an allegation of Rape?
    Women like this should be prosecuted. Should not be allowed to make such an awful allegation against someone unless you have gone to the police. Rape is a crime. It should be reported to the police.

  49. Telling her to “Get the Hell out” didn’t do much for her afterglow.
    I mean if she could not fix the television reception what good is she?
    Ben probably doesn’t even remember the incident and she has reworked and replayed the incident over and over in her head with a lot of coaching by her psychologist and lawyer.

  50. Ravens Fan says:
    July 23, 2009 4:37 PM
    To all you Squeelers fans, the D-Players on the Ravens, Browns, and Bengals, will be heard screaming “RAPIST” on every play this year. LOVE IT.
    That’s fine. Our offense was tired of them screaming “STOP KICKING OUR ASS – IT HURTS!”

  51. Wonder how many birdies Ben had on the 19th hole that day and how much time elapsed from the conclusion of the golf tournament till he actually went to his room and realized their were no vegas showgirls around.
    Settle- sit out the year- and go to Betty Ford.
    GUILTY-no technicalities here and no reviews from the booth (NFL properties)

  52. But it is always Raider players that get into trouble, and are thugs, right?
    I mean, that is what I read and see on TV from the media professionals, and I know they always tell the truth, so how can this be?

  53. So many are trying to make her out to be a nutcase with not even the remote possibility of her being a victim of rape. Well, I got news for you. Nutcases get raped too. And not so attractive women, fat ones, short ones, women of every background and race, naive ones, smart ones, young ones, and older women. But somehow not Andrea. Yes, she has a name, Andrea.
    Men that rape women are only thinking of penetration to get off their jollies, the woman attached to that body part is of no consequence to them. So for those who keep bringing up her weight, lack of physical beauty, or carrying on an internet romance, think again. Some women sit on their rape experience for years and this is why there is no statue of limitation on rape. Say something and I will kill you. Victims do listen. She is from Canada. How long has she been here? How well read is she on U.S. laws regarding rape and that reporting to Harrah’s security is not it. Did she feel gratitude towards her Visa and decided not to rock the boat, especially involving a celebrity in a celebrity infested land.
    For Ben’s sake, I hope this is not true. But if it is, Andrea is just one of many women who dealt with this situation in the not so ideal way. If she went to Harrah’s and they blew her off, they should be made to pay as suggested by someone.
    And why are people making a big deal about the amount she is asking for. This is to pay for incidental cost of the rape as I understand it. What about punitive damages beyond the half a million she is asking. This is one of the reasons I am inclined to believe that 1) something happened and 2) it was not consentual. Ben’s statement sold me.

  54. “Markle says:
    July 23, 2009 8:00 PM
    How would you look the first time you stood in
    front of cameras to deny an allegation of Rape?”
    Umm….I’m going to go WAY out on a limb here….and suggest that this wasn’t the first time Ben’s enormous face was in front of a camera.

  55. During his press shindig, Ben should have used his on field I just threw an interception so now I have to look hurt face whincing routine he always uses..

  56. He only talked about women. Does that leave the door open for the opposite sex? He looked like almost every other guilty POS we’ve seen reading from a telepromter. Obama, Vick, Rapistburger, stop with the BS. If someone accused me of something I didn’t do and made it a public spectacle, I’d be damned if someone else stopped me from what I had to say. I don’t give a shit if it costs me in court, I’ll say what I have to say. If you are truly innocent, then people will know without question. If he only had balls the size of Winslow.

  57. What’s wrong with you people ? Im a Steelers fan and I would NEVER attack a player’s dignity(not even Ray Lewis,Jamal or anyone else).
    The player I hate the most in the league is Tom Brady and I swear that I wasnt happy he got injured last year.
    This goes beyond football it’s about real life and real humans.If Ben did rape this girl then I hope he gets what he deserves and I hope the Steelers will cut him.
    Although if the girl is planning this thing it is just plain sick.Dignity is the only thing you have in life and it’s not because you’re a football player that earns a lot of money that this is different.
    But come on,I saw someone saying that he will call him RAPIST during a game.Do you have any idea how the guy will feel deep inside if he’s not guilty ?
    Sometimes I just think humans are pathetic it makes me sick to my stomach.
    No football rivalries or anything is an explanation to do such things.

  58. steelwarriors55 says:
    “I saw someone saying that he will call him RAPIST during a game.Do you have any idea how the guy will feel deep inside if he’s not guilty ?”
    Thats funny. I’m sure Big Ben and his relations have been called a lot worse during games. I don’t personally know if it has caused him to cry in the locker room, but my money is on no.
    And FWIW, Tom Brady does not care what you or any other Steelers fan thinks of him. But thanks for being such a humanitarian and not feeling good while someone you have never even met writhes in terrible pain. Your goodness must keep you very warm at night. Unbelievable.

  59. Jeez Florio why don’t you just get out your “jump to conclusions mat” and use a scientific approach to find out how this will all shake down? I love how you assume Ben will have a meltdown if he is forced to testify. Does anyone really think this case will ever make it to court? One of two things will happen: I am sure either Ben or Harrah’s will pay the bitch to shut up. Or James Harrison will kill her.

  60. Men that rape women are only thinking of penetration to get off their jollies, the woman attached to that body part is of no consequence to them.
    Ummmm…No…Rape is a violent crime…Rape is about power, and/or anger, rarely is it about sexual gratification. Anyone who rapes anyone is usually doing so because they want to display dominance over the other party. Do you really think prison rapes are occurring because the inmates are turned on by each other? It is a display of power and dominance.

  61. RavensManiac….Sorry maybe this will make it easier for you to swallow…the Steelers OWNED your PurpleBrownies last season, what else would you call it when one division foe defeats another, home & away, then again in the Conference title game? As for the refs giving them game 2; if memory serves, Ben drove his team 80+ yards in the final few minutes, against a defense that cried the entire week preceeding, that it was not getting enough attention for being as good or better than the true #1. After navigating through your washed-up D like the Steelers did, do you really think your PurpleBrownies had any chance of winning the game had the Steelers sent it to overtime??? Now go ahead & hold onto those 2 games (& NOTHING MORE) from ’06 & I’ll focus on recent history…3-0 against your PurpleBrownies (& an UNPRECEDENTED 6th SUPER BOWL TITLE) in the NFL’s most recent campaign!

  62. PurpleBrowniesManiac…On second thought, I’m going back to 3 ASS-WHUPPINS, my reason being that even your MURDERING leader knew it was total domination by the Men Of Steel, since he wasn’t man enough to even meet the media after the title game. Surely you noticed his absence, and why would he meet the media, when there was no “next game” that season to whine about avenging “when they come to our house”. Because the Steelers sent your PurpleBrownies home alone, on their way to SBXLIII. BTW…don’t call it karma, because it’s night & day fool…GrayRay was arrested & faced criminal charges, which he bought his way out of, Ben has done neither!!!

  63. DickBurghGirl…
    Nobody lives in the past like a steelers fan.
    Give big Jen time he will be brought up on criminal charges….Funny how confident you are that Ben did nothing…but Ray is guilty.
    You know it is Karma….always something with black and gold isnt it…one year a windshield face hit and now Rape! Get ready for your mediocre 8-8 season.
    They only way your team wins is with intervention from Refs!!! Look at the SB in 2005! Keep convincing your pathetic existence that your stillers actually won that game!
    You ever notice Big Jen has these great drives in the last minute??? Against prevent defenses?? You could QB against a prevent defense. So dont get too high on Rape-Boy when he could not read a defense to save his ass any other time during a game (even Tomlin saud that last year). So stop blaming your OL for the sacks and realize your QB has an IQ of 20.
    Think about it…if the league tested the stillers regularly for steroids like they do other teams, your defense would be in the bottom half of the league. The only legitimate player you have is the Obsessive Compulsive Genuflector Polamalu…
    Face it, the steelers are no powerhouse. You are the Ravens of 2000. You have a great defense (who unklike the 200 Ravens are driven by steroids) and an offense that just has to go out and not turn the ball over…in reality Ben cant even do that correctly..that is where the refs come in…

  64. RavenEatDick-iac…Prevent defense? With a 3 point lead??? Surely you can’t expect anyone to take your posts seriously now…do they let you out often, or just to spew your propaganda? Of which you no doubt are so proud, regarless of it’s accuracy or it’s basis in FACT…count ’em fool; not 1, not 2, but 3 ass-whuppins for your PurpleBrownies & their MURDERING leader & ALL in the same season! How sad it must be to have to, in effect, ultimately root for the enemy. Indeed that is exactly what you & yours have no choice but to do. Since your team packed up & abandoned your open sewer of a city decades ago, leaving you all no choice but to become fans of your prior enemy, the Cleve Brownies. Can’t blame Arty & Co. since they considered it an upgrade (albeit an awfully slight one) to relocate to your cesspool from the landfill that is the mistake by the lake…so go on & root, root, root for your PurpleBrownies & I’ll keep backin’ the ONLY 6x SB Champs & lookin out the other window every time I roll down 95 past your little trailer park by the bay!

  65. ScavengerBirdManiac…don’t hate cause we have a PAST (as in rich history) to live in, just as we have a PRESENT which has also been rather successful & a bright FUTURE as well…& we won’t hate cause you had a YEAR…LMMFAO!!!

  66. RavenEatDick??? You really are the class of stiller fans everywhere!! 3 point lead…..I thought you said asswhoopin idiot?

  67. Ravens Fan says:
    July 23, 2009 4:37 PM
    To all you Squeelers fans, the D-Players on the Ravens, Browns, and Bengals, will be heard screaming “RAPIST” on every play this year. LOVE IT.
    Well, other teams tried it by screaming “MURDERER” at your boy Ray-Ray, didn’t seem to have much of an effect on him.
    I see all you haters are wetting yourself over this little passion play — let me clue you in on the little diff here.
    Ray was around a proven crime at the time it happened — Ben is accused of an event that hasn’t even been proved ever to have happened.
    Except of course in the court of public morons.
    My own guess is maybe Ben was involved with this woman in the past, maybe they even did the silk-sheet tango, who knows — probably he moved on and she couldn’t. But here’s the kicker, haters.
    If that is the case, all Ben has to do is prove a prior relationship, and BOOM! Down she goes, caught in a lie, since she’s claiming he was some guy she met when she had to go and fix his TV set. I’m guessing this will happen before too long.
    Then guess what? I’m taking names of all punks here who yukked it up — you will be reminded forever on this site how stupidly wrong you were (got it, ppdoc?) Forget talking football — we’ll be talking your stupidity forever.
    Oh and another thing smart guys — forget the post Super Bowl slackoff, the Steelers now have a nice chip on their shoulders going into the ’09 season. Get another ready Lombardi trophy ready boys, oh yeah! What you haters don’t realize is that this is the WORST thing that could’ve happened to you — get ready to have your team’s lights punched out.

  68. RavenMaven…For the FINAL time & I’ll go slow…the Steelers & PurpleBrownies met 3 times this past season, @PIT, @BAL & in the AFC title game. The results were the same in ALL 3, the BETTER team won, then the BETTER team went on to become the BEST team (also making them the BEST team in the NFL, as we now know it (since the AFL/NFL merger), whether you measure it by World Championships, Hall-of Famers, games WON or overall class, the FACTS are the facts! So, you see, in an overall sense it really is an ass-whuppin, since the Steelers owned the PurpleBrownies in 08/09 & the sad part for you is that your MURDERING leader knew it as well, since he didn’t have the balls to face the media after the final blow was delivered, cause he realized that he had no answer for the hurt!!!

  69. Ravens Fans: Yes its true. The Ravens, Browns and Bengals Defenses will be yelling “RAPE”. But its probably because your teams suck at sucking and the only way to get their way with your lousy team is too bend them over a barrel. And the only option your team has is to yell “Rape”.

Leave a Reply

You must be logged in to leave a comment. Not a member? Register now!

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.