**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**2794

# Search results for: Condition factor

##### 2794 Affine Projection Algorithm with Variable Data-Reuse Factor

**Authors:**
ChangWoo Lee,
Young Kow Lee,
Sung Jun Ban,
SungHoo Choi,
Sang Woo Kim

**Abstract:**

This paper suggests a new Affine Projection (AP) algorithm with variable data-reuse factor using the condition number as a decision factor. To reduce computational burden, we adopt a recently reported technique which estimates the condition number of an input data matrix. Several simulations show that the new algorithm has better performance than that of the conventional AP algorithm.

**Keywords:**
Affine projection algorithm,
variable data-reuse factor,
condition number,
convergence rate,
misalignment.

##### 2793 A Sufficient Condition for Graphs to Have Hamiltonian [a, b]-Factors

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou

**Abstract:**

Let a and b be nonnegative integers with 2 ≤ a < b, and let G be a Hamiltonian graph of order n with n ≥ (a+b−4)(a+b−2) b−2 . An [a, b]-factor F of G is called a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if F contains a Hamiltonian cycle. In this paper, it is proved that G has a Hamiltonian [a, b]-factor if |NG(X)| > (a−1)n+|X|−1 a+b−3 for every nonempty independent subset X of V (G) and δ(G) > (a−1)n+a+b−4 a+b−3 .

**Keywords:**
graph,
minimum degree,
neighborhood,
[a,
b]-factor,
Hamiltonian [a,
b]-factor.

##### 2792 External Morphological Study of Wild Labeo calbasu with Reference to Body Weight' Total Length and Condition Factor from the River Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan

**Authors:**
Muhammad Naeem,
Asif Hussain Bhatti,
Muhammad Fahad Nouman

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Labeo calbasu,
Length-weight relationship,
Body
weight,
condition factor

##### 2791 Effect of Body Size and Condition Factor on Whole Body Composition of Hybrid (Catla catla ♂x Labeo rohita ♀) from Pakistan

**Authors:**
Muhammad Naeem,
Abdus Salam,
Muhammad Asghar Bashir,
Abir Ishtiaq,
Qurat-ul-Ane Gillani and
Asma Salam

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Hybrid fish,
Body composition,
Condition factor,
Predictive equations

##### 2790 Basic Tendency Model in Complete Factor Synergetics of Complex Systems

**Authors:**
Li Zong-Cheng

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
complex system,
complete factor synergetics,
basicequation,
rationalizing tendency model,
non-rationalizing tendencymodel.

##### 2789 Further Investigations on Higher Mathematics Scores for Chinese University Students

**Authors:**
Xun Ge

**Abstract:**

Recently, X. Ge and J. Qian investigated some relations between higher mathematics scores and calculus scores (resp. linear algebra scores, probability statistics scores) for Chinese university students. Based on rough-set theory, they established an information system S = (U,CuD,V, f). In this information system, higher mathematics score was taken as a decision attribute and calculus score, linear algebra score, probability statistics score were taken as condition attributes. They investigated importance of each condition attribute with respective to decision attribute and strength of each condition attribute supporting decision attribute. In this paper, we give further investigations for this issue. Based on the above information system S = (U, CU D, V, f), we analyze the decision rules between condition and decision granules. For each x E U, we obtain support (resp. strength, certainty factor, coverage factor) of the decision rule C —>x D, where C —>x D is the decision rule induced by x in S = (U, CU D, V, f). Results of this paper gives new analysis of on higher mathematics scores for Chinese university students, which can further lead Chinese university students to raise higher mathematics scores in Chinese graduate student entrance examination.

**Keywords:**
Rough set,
support,
strength,
certainty factor,
coverage factor.

##### 2788 A Neighborhood Condition for Fractional k-deleted Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Hongxia Liu

**Abstract:**

Abstract–Let k ≥ 3 be an integer, and let G be a graph of order n with n ≥ 9k +3- 42(k - 1)2 + 2. Then a spanning subgraph F of G is called a k-factor if dF (x) = k for each x ∈ V (G). A fractional k-factor is a way of assigning weights to the edges of a graph G (with all weights between 0 and 1) such that for each vertex the sum of the weights of the edges incident with that vertex is k. A graph G is a fractional k-deleted graph if there exists a fractional k-factor after deleting any edge of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is a fractional k-deleted graph if G satisfies δ(G) ≥ k + 1 and |NG(x) ∪ NG(y)| ≥ 1 2 (n + k - 2) for each pair of nonadjacent vertices x, y of G.

**Keywords:**
Graph,
minimum degree,
neighborhood union,
fractional k-factor,
fractional k-deleted graph.

##### 2787 Determination of Unsaturated Soil Permeability Based on Geometric Factor Development of Constant Discharge Model

**Authors:**
A. Rifa’i,
Y. Takeshita,
M. Komatsu

**Abstract:**

*k*) in both saturated and unsaturated conditions to solve this problem. More accurate and efficient field testing procedure is required to obtain permeability data that present the field condition. One of the field permeability test equipment is Constant Discharge procedure to determine the permeability coefficient. Necessary adjustments of the Constant Discharge procedure are needed to be determined especially the value of geometric factor (

*F*) to improve the corresponding value of permeability coefficient. The value of

*k*will be correlated with the value of volumetric water content (

*θ*) of an unsaturated condition until saturated condition. The principle procedure of Constant Discharge model provides a constant flow in permeameter tube that flows into the ground until the water level in the tube becomes constant. Constant water level in the tube is highly dependent on the tube dimension. Every tube dimension has a shape factor called the geometric factor that affects the result of the test. Geometric factor value is defined as the characteristic of shape and radius of the tube. This research has modified the geometric factor parameters by using empty material tube method so that the geometric factor will change. Saturation level is monitored by using soil moisture sensor. The field test results were compared with the results of laboratory tests to validate the results of the test. Field and laboratory test results of empty tube material method have an average difference of 3.33 x 10

^{-4}cm/sec. The test results showed that modified geometric factor provides more accurate data. The improved methods of constant discharge procedure provide more relevant results.

**Keywords:**
Constant discharge,
geometric factor,
permeability coefficient,
unsaturated soils.

##### 2786 On Fractional (k,m)-Deleted Graphs with Constrains Conditions

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Hongxia Liu

**Abstract:**

Let G be a graph of order n, and let k 2 and m 0 be two integers. Let h : E(G) [0, 1] be a function. If e∋x h(e) = k holds for each x V (G), then we call G[Fh] a fractional k-factor of G with indicator function h where Fh = {e E(G) : h(e) > 0}. A graph G is called a fractional (k,m)-deleted graph if there exists a fractional k-factor G[Fh] of G with indicator function h such that h(e) = 0 for any e E(H), where H is any subgraph of G with m edges. In this paper, it is proved that G is a fractional (k,m)-deleted graph if (G) k + m + m k+1 , n 4k2 + 2k − 6 + (4k 2 +6k−2)m−2 k−1 and max{dG(x), dG(y)} n 2 for any vertices x and y of G with dG(x, y) = 2. Furthermore, it is shown that the result in this paper is best possible in some sense.

**Keywords:**
Graph,
degree condition,
fractional k-factor,
fractional (k,
m)-deleted graph.

##### 2785 Appling Eyring-s Accelerated Life Testing Model to “Times to Breakdown“ of Insulating Fluid: A Combined Approach of an Accelerated and a Sequential Life Testing

**Authors:**
D. I. De Souza,
D. R. Fonseca,
D. Kipper

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Eyring Accelerated Model,
Sequential Life Testing,
Two-Parameter Weibull Distribution,
Voltage Stresses.

##### 2784 Heavy Metals (Pb, Cu, Fe, and Zn) Level in Shellfish (Etheria elliptica), Water and Sediments of River Ogbese, Ondo State, Nigeria

**Authors:**
O. O. Olawusi-Peters,
O. E. Aguda,
F. O. Okoye

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Condition factor,
Etheria elliptica,
heavy metals,
River Ogbese.

##### 2783 A Novel Slip Correction Factor for Spherical Aerosol Particles

**Authors:**
Abouzar Moshfegh,
Mehrzad Shams,
Goodarz Ahmadi,
Reza Ebrahimi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
CFD,
Cunningham correction,
Slip correction factor,
Spherical aerosol.

##### 2782 Stress Intensity Factor for Dynamic Cracking of Composite Material by X-FEM Method

**Authors:**
S. Lecheb,
A. Nour,
A. Chellil,
H. Mechakra,
N. Hamad,
H. Kebir

**Abstract:**

The work involves develops attended by a numerical execution of the eXtend Finite Element Method premises a measurement by the fracture process cracked so many cracked plates an application will be processed for the calculation of the stress intensity factor SIF. In the first we give in statically part the distribution of stress, displacement field and strain of composite plate in two cases uncrack/edge crack, also in dynamical part the first six modes shape. Secondly, we calculate Stress Intensity Factor SIF for different orientation angle θ of central crack with length (2a=0.4mm) in plan strain condition, KI and KII are obtained for mode I and mode II respectively using X-FEM method. Finally from crack inclined involving mixed modes results, the comparison we chose dangerous inclination and the best crack angle when K is minimal.

**Keywords:**
Stress Intensity Factor (SIF),
Crack orientation,
Glass/Epoxy,
natural Frequencies,
X-FEM.

##### 2781 Hamiltonian Factors in Hamiltonian Graphs

**Authors:**
Sizhong Zhou,
Bingyuan Pu

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
graph,
neighborhood,
factor,
Hamiltonian factor.

##### 2780 Fatigue Analysis of Crack Growing Rate and Stress Intensity Factor for Stress Corrosion Cracking in a Pipeline System

**Authors:**
A. R. Shahani,
E. Mahdavi,
M. Amidpour

**Abstract:**

Environment-assisted cracking (EAC) is one of the most serious causes of structural failure over a broad range of industrial applications including offshore structures. In EAC condition there is not a definite relation such as Paris equation in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). According to studying and searching a lot what the researchers said either a material has contact with hydrogen or any other corrosive environment, phenomenon of electrical and chemical reactions of material with its environment will be happened. In the literature, there are many different works to consider fatigue crack growing and solve it but they are experimental works. Thus, in this paper, authors have an aim to evaluate mathematically the pervious works in LEFM. Obviously, if an environment is more sour and corrosive, the changes of stress intensity factor is more and the calculation of stress intensity factor is difficult. A mathematical relation to deal with the stress intensity factor during the diffusion of sour environment especially hydrogen in a marine pipeline is presented. By using this relation having and some experimental relation an analytical formulation will be presented which enables the fatigue crack growth and critical crack length under cyclic loading to be predicted. In addition, we can calculate KSCC and stress intensity factor in the pipeline caused by EAC.

**Keywords:**
Embrittlement,
Fracture mechanics,
Hydrogen diffusion,
Stress intensity factor.

##### 2779 A Review of Critical Success Factor in Building Maintenance Management Practice for University Sector

**Authors:**
S.H. Zulkarnain,
E.M.A Zawawi,
M.Y. A. Rahman,
N.K.F. Mustafa

**Abstract:**

Building maintenance plays an important role among other activities in building operation. Building defect and damages are part of the building maintenance 'bread and butter' as their input indicated in the building inspection is very much justified, particularly as to determine the building performance. There will be no escape route or short cut from building maintenance work. This study attempts to identify a competitive performance that translates the Critical Success Factor achievements and satisfactorily meet the university-s expectation. The quality and efficiency of maintenance management operation of building depends, to some extent, on the building condition information, the expectation from the university sector and the works carried out for each maintenance activity. This paper reviews the critical success factor in building maintenance management practice for university sectors from four (4) perspectives which include (1) customer (2) internal processes (3) financial and (4) learning and growth perspective. The enhancement of these perspectives is capable to reach the maintenance management goal for a better living environment in university campus.

**Keywords:**
Building maintenance,
Critical Success Factor,
Management,
University

##### 2778 The Importance of Bridge Health Monitoring

**Authors:**
Punya Chupanit,
Chayatan Phromsorn

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bridge,
Visual Inspection,
Load Test,
Condition
Rating,
Rating Factor

##### 2777 Influence of Drought on Yield and Yield Components in White Bean

**Authors:**
Gholamreza Habibi

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cluster analysis,
factor analysis,
path analysis,
selection index,
White bean

##### 2776 Correlation between Capacitance and Dissipation Factor used for Assessment of Stator Insulation

**Authors:**
José Luis Oslinger,
Luis Carlos Castro

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Aging,
capacitance,
dissipation factor,
electrical
treeing,
insulation condition,
partial discharge.

##### 2775 Constructing an Attitude Scale: Attitudes toward Violence on Televisions

**Authors:**
Göksu Gözen Citak

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Attitudes toward violence,
confirmatory factor analysis,
constructing attitude scale,
exploratory factor analysis,
violence on televisions.

##### 2774 Study on Sharp V-Notch Problem under Dynamic Loading Condition Using Symplectic Analytical Singular Element

**Authors:**
Xiaofei Hu,
Zhiyu Cai,
Weian Yao

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
V-notch,
dynamic stress intensity factor,
finite element method,
precise time domain expanding algorithm.

##### 2773 Cartoon Effect and Ambient Illumination Based Depth Perception Assessment of 3D Video

**Authors:**
G. Nur

**Abstract:**

Monitored 3-Dimensional (3D) video experience can be utilized as “feedback information” to fine tune the service parameters for providing a better service to the demanding 3D service customers. The 3D video experience which includes both video quality and depth perception is influenced by several contextual and content related factors (e.g., ambient illumination condition, content characteristics, etc) due to the complex nature of the 3D video. Therefore, effective factors on this experience should be utilized while assessing it. In this paper, structural information of the depth map sequences of the 3D video is considered as content related factor effective on the depth perception assessment. Cartoon-like filter is utilized to abstract the significant depth levels in the depth map sequences to determine the structural information. Moreover, subjective experiments are conducted using 3D videos associated with cartoon-like depth map sequences to investigate the effectiveness of ambient illumination condition, which is a contextual factor, on depth perception. Using the knowledge gained through this study, 3D video experience metrics can be developed to deliver better service to the 3D video service users.

**Keywords:**
3D Video,
Ambient Illumination,
Cartoon Effect,
Depth Perception.

##### 2772 Enabling Factors towards Safety Improvement for Industrialised Building System (IBS)

**Authors:**
Nasyairi Mat Nasir,
Zulhabri Ismail,
Faridah Ismail,
Sharifah Nur Aina Syed Alwee,
Masnizan Che Mat

**Abstract:**

The utilisation of Industrial Building System (IBS) in construction industry will lead to a safe site condition since minimum numbers of workers are required to be on-site, timely material delivery, systematic component storage, reduction of construction material and waste. These matters are being promoted in the Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP 2006-2015). However, the enabling factors of IBS that will foster a safer working environment are indefinite; on that basis a research has been conducted. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and identify the relevant factors towards safety improvement for IBS. A quantitative research by way of questionnaire surveys have been conducted to 314 construction companies. The target group was Grade 5 to Grade 7 contractors registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) which specialise in IBS. The findings disclosed seven factors linked to the safety improvement of IBS construction site in Malaysia. The factors were historical, economic, psychological, technical, procedural, organisational and the environmental factors. From the findings, a psychological factor ranked as the highest and most crucial factor contributing to safer IBS construction site. The psychological factor included the self-awareness and influences from workmates behaviour. Followed by organisational factors, where project management style will encourage the safety efforts. From the procedural factors, it was also found that training was one of the significant factors to improve safety culture of IBS construction site. Another important finding that formed as a part of the environmental factor was storage of IBS components, in which proper planning of the layout would able to contribute to a safer site condition. To conclude, in order to improve safety of IBS construction site, a welltrained and skilled workers are required for IBS projects, thus proper training is permissible and should be emphasised.

**Keywords:**
Enabling Factors,
Industrialised Building System,
Safety Improvement.

##### 2771 A New Condition for Conflicting Bifuzzy Sets Based On Intuitionistic Evaluation

**Authors:**
Imran C.T.,
Syibrah M.N.,
Mohd Lazim A.

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Conflicting bifuzzy set,
conflicting degree,
fuzzy
sets,
fuzzy numbers.

##### 2770 Analysis and Measuring Surface Roughness of Nonwovens Using Machine Vision Method

**Authors:**
Dariush Semnani,
Javad Yekrang,
Hossein Ghayoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Surface roughness,
Nonwoven,
Machine vision,
Image processing.

##### 2769 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Shallow Foundations with Different Shapes

**Authors:**
S. Taghvamanesh,
R. Ziaie Moayed

**Abstract:**

There are several methods for calculating the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Nγ (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Nγ depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. It is apparent that the value of Nγ increases irregularly with the friction angle of the subsoil, which leads to an excessive increment in Nγ of foundations with larger width. Also, the bearing capacity factor Nγ will significantly decrease with an increase in foundation`s width. It also should be highlighted that the effect of shape and dimension will be less noticeable with a decrease in the relative density of the soil. Hence, the bearing capacity factor Nγ relatively depends on foundation`s width, surcharge and roughness ratio. This paper presents the results of various studies conducted on the bearing capacity factor Nγ of: different types of shallow foundation and foundations with irregular geometry (ring footing, triangular footing, shell foundations and etc.) Further studies on the effect of bearing capacity factor Nγ on mat foundations and the characteristics of this factor with or without consideration for the presence of friction between soil and foundation are recommended.

**Keywords:**
Bearing capacity,
Bearing capacity factor,
irregular foundation,
shallow foundation.

##### 2768 Energy Efficiency Testing of Fluorescent and WOLED (White Organic LED)

**Authors:**
Hari Maghfiroh,
Harry Prabowo

**Abstract:**

WOLED is widely used as lighting for high efficacy and little power consumption. In this research, power factor testing between WOLED and fluorescent lamp to see which one is more efficient in consuming energy. Since both lamps use semiconductor components, so calculation of the power factor need to consider the effects of harmonics. Harmonic make bigger losses. The study is conducted by comparing the value of the power factor regardless of harmonics (DPF) and also by included the harmonics (TPF). The average value of DPF of fluorescent is 0.953 while WOLED is 0.972. The average value of TPF of fluorescent is 0.717 whereas WOLED is 0.933. So from the review of power factor WOLED is more energy efficient than fluorescent lamp.

**Keywords:**
Fluorescent,
harmonic,
power factor,
WOLED.

##### 2767 Meteorological Risk Assessment for Ships with Fuzzy Logic Designer

**Authors:**
Ismail Karaca,
Ridvan Saracoglu,
Omer Soner

**Abstract:**

Fuzzy Logic, an advanced method to support decision-making, is used by various scientists in many disciplines. Fuzzy programming is a product of fuzzy logic, fuzzy rules, and implication. In marine science, fuzzy programming for ships is dramatically increasing together with autonomous ship studies. In this paper, a program to support the decision-making process for ship navigation has been designed. The program is produced in fuzzy logic and rules, by taking the marine accidents and expert opinions into account. After the program was designed, the program was tested by 46 ship accidents reported by the Transportation Safety Investigation Center of Turkey. Wind speed, sea condition, visibility, day/night ratio have been used as input data. They have been converted into a risk factor within the Fuzzy Logic Designer application and fuzzy rules set by marine experts. Finally, the expert's meteorological risk factor for each accident is compared with the program's risk factor, and the error rate was calculated. The main objective of this study is to improve the navigational safety of ships, by using the advance decision support model. According to the study result, fuzzy programming is a robust model that supports safe navigation.

**Keywords:**
Calculation of risk factor,
fuzzy logic,
fuzzy programming for ship,
safe navigation of ships.

##### 2766 The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) with Turkish Sample: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

**Authors:**
Oznur Korukcu,
Kamile Kukulu,
Mehmet Z. Firat

**Abstract:**

The propose of this study is to investigate the factor structures of the W-DEQ, originally developed on UK and Swedish women, were confirmed in Turkish samples, and to obtain a new modified factor structure appropriate to Turkish culture. Statistical analyses of the data obtained were performed using SPSS© for Windows version 13.0 and the SAS statistical software Version 9.1. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis of W-DEQ were performed in the study. Factor analysis yielded four factors related to hope, fear, lack of positive anticipation and riskiness. The alpha estimates of the total W-DEQ score were somewhat higher, being 0.92 for the parous and 0.90 for the nulliparous sample. These are well above the accepted limit of 0.70 and indicate excellent levels of internal reliability, thus showing that the questions were appropriate to the Turkish culture and useful scale for the evaluation of fear of childbirth in Turkish pregnants.

**Keywords:**
Confirmatory factor analysis,
cross-cultural research,
exploratory factor analysis,
fear of childbirth.

##### 2765 Evaluation of Behavior Factor for Steel Moment-Resisting Frames

**Authors:**
Taïeb Branci,
Djamal Yahmi,
Abdelhamid Bouchair,
Eric Fourneley

**Abstract:**

According to current seismic codes the structures are calculated using the capacity design procedure based on the concept of shear at the base depending on several parameters including behavior factor which is considered to be the most important parameter. The behavior factor allows designing the structure when it is at its ultimate limit state taking into account its energy dissipation through its plastic deformation. The aim of the present study is to assess the basic parameters on which is composed the behavior factor among them the reduction factor due to ductility, and those due to redundancy and the overstrength for steel moment-resisting frames of different heights and regular configuration. Analyses are conducted on these frames using the nonlinear static method where the effect of some parameters on the behavior factor, such as the number of stories and the number of spans, are taken into account. The results show that the behavior factor is rather sensitive to the variation of the number of stories and bays.

**Keywords:**
Behavior,
code,
frame,
ductility,
overstrength,
redundancy,
plastic.