The Dolphins scored their fifth touchdown of the season, taking a 7-6 lead on Buffalo early in the second quarter.
Kalen Ballage scored on a 3-yard run with 14:49 remaining in the first half.
It was an impressive eight-play, 75-yard drive that ate up 3:59.
The Dolphins led only three minutes, 47 seconds in their first five games.
Stephen Hauschka has made field goals of 39 and 43 yards for the Bills.